Geology Main Syllabus


1. General Geology: The Solar System, Meteorites, Origin and interior of the earth and age of earth;Volcanoes- causes and products, Volcanic belts; Earthquakes-causes, effects, Seismic zones of India;Island arcs, trenches and mid-ocean ridges; Continental drifts; Seafloor spreading, Plate tectonics;Isostasy.

2. Geomorphology and Remote Sensing: Basic concepts of geomorphology; Weathering and soilformations; Landforms, slopes and drainage; Geomorphic cycles and their interpretation; Morphologyand its relation to structures and lithology; Coastal geomorphology; Applications of geomorphology inmineral prospecting, civil engineering; Hydrology and environmental studies; Geomorphology ofIndian subcontinent. Aerial photographs and their interpretation-merits and limitations; TheElectromagnetic spectrum; Orbiting satellites and sensor systems; Indian Remote Sensing Satellites;Satellites data products; Applications of remote sensing in geology; The Geographic InformationSystems (GIS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) - its applications.

3. Structural Geology: Principles of geologic mapping and map reading, Projection diagrams, Stressand strain ellipsoid and stress-strain relationships of elastic, plastic and viscous materials; Strainmarkers in deformed rocks; Behaviour of minerals and rocks under deformation conditions; Folds andfaults classification and mechanics; Structural analysis of folds, foliations, lineations, joints and faults,unconformities; Timerelationship between crystallization and deformation.

4. Paleontology: Species- definition and nomenclature; Megafossils and Microfossils; Modes ofpreservation of fossils; Different kinds of microfossils; Application of microfossils in correlation,petroleum exploration, paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic studies; Evolutionary trend in Hominidae,Equidae and Proboscidae; Siwalik fauna; Gondwana flora and fauna and its importance; Index fossilsand their significance.

5. Indian Stratigraphy: Classification of stratigraphic sequences: lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic,chronostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic and their interrelationships; Distribution andclassification of Precambrian rocks of India; Study of stratigraphic distribution and lithology ofPhanerozoic rocks of India with reference to fauna, flora and economic importance; Major boundaryproblems- Cambrian/Precambrian, Permian/Triassic, Cretaceous/Tertiary and Pliocene/Pleistocene;Study of climatic conditions, paleogeography and igneous activity in the Indian subcontinent in thegeological past; Tectonic framework of India; Evolution of the Himalayas.

6. Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology: Hydrologic cycle and genetic classification of water;Movement of subsurface water; Springs; Porosity, permeability, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivityand storage coefficient, classification of aquifers; Water-bearing characteristics of rocks; Ground-waterchemistry; Salt water intrusion; Types of wells; Drainage basin morphometry; Exploration forgroundwater; Groundwater recharge; Problems and management of groundwater; Rainwaterharvesting; Engineering properties of rocks; Geolo-gical investigations for dams, tunnels highways,railway and bridges; Rock as construction material; Landslides-causes, prevention and rehabilitation;Earthquake-resistant structures


1. Mineralogy: Classification of crystals into systems and classes of symmetry; International system ofcrystallographic notation; Use of projection diagrams to represent crystal symmetry; Elements of X-raycrystallography. Physical and chemical characters of rock forming silicate mineral groups; Structuralclassification of silicates; Common minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks; Minerals of thecarbonate, phosphate, sulphide and halide groups; Clay minerals. Optical properties of common rockforming minerals; Pleochroism, extinction angle, double refraction, birefringence, twinning anddispersion in minerals.

2.Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology: Generation and crystallization of magmas; Crystallization ofalbite-anorthite, diopside-anorthite and diopside-wollastonite-silica systems; Bowen s ReactionPrinciple; Magmatic differentation and assimilation; Petrogenetic significance of the textures andstructures of igneous rocks; Petro-graphy and petrogenesis of granite, syenite, diorite, basic andultrabasic groups, charnockite, anorthosite and alkaline rocks; Carbonatites; Deccan volcanic province.Types and agents of metamorphism; Metamorphic grades and zones; Phase rule; Facies of regional andcontact metamorphism; ACF and AKF diagrams; Textures and structures of metamorphic rocks;Metamorphism of arenaceous, argillaceous and basic rocks; Minerals assemblages Retrogrademetamorphism; Metasomatism and granitisation, migmatites, Granulite terrains of India.

3.Sedimentary Petrology: Sediments and Sedimentary rocks: Processes of formation; digenesis andlithification; Clastic and non-clastic rockstheir classification, petrography and depositionalenvironment; Sedimentary facies and provenance; Sedimentary structures and their significance; Heavyminerals and their significance; Sedimentary basins of India.

4.Economic Geology: Ore, ore minerals and gangue, tenor of ore, classification of ore deposits;Process of formation of minerals deposits; Controls of ore localization; Ore textures and structu-res;Metallogenic epochs and provinces; Geology of the important Indian deposits of aluminium,chromium, copper, gold, iron, lead zinc, manganese, titanium, uranium and thorium and industrialminerals; Deposits of coal and petroleum in India; National Mineral Policy; Conservation andutilization of mineral resources; Marine mineral resources and Law of Sea.

5.Mining Geology: Methods of prospecting-geological, geophysical, geochemical and geobotanical;Techniques of sampling; Estimation of reserves or ore; Methods of exploration and mining metallicores, industrial minerals, marine mineral resources and building stones; Mineral beneficiation and oredressing.

6.Geochemistry and Environmental Geology: Cosmic abundance of elements; Composition of theplanets and meteorites; Structure and composition of Earth and distribution of elements; Traceelements; Elements of crystal chemistrytypes of chemical bonds, coordination number; Isomorphismand polymorphism; Elementary thermodynamics. Natural hazards-floods, mass wasting, costal hazards,earthquakes and volcanic activity and mitigation; Environmental impact of urbanization, mining,industrial and radioactive waste disposal, use of fertilizers, dumping of mine waste and fly ash;Pollution of ground and surface water, marine pollution; Environment protection - legislative measuresin India; Sea level changes: causes and impact.

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