Sociology Main Syllabus



1. Sociology - The Discipline:
Modernity and social changes in Europe and emergence of sociology. Scope of the subject and comparison with other social sciences. Sociology and common sense.

2. Sociology as Science:
Science, scientific method and critique. Major theoretical strands of research methodology. Positivism and its critique. Fact value and objectivity.
Non- positivist methodologies.

3. Research Methods and Analysis:
Qualitative and quantitative methods. Techniques of data collection. Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability and validity.

4. Sociological Thinkers:
Kar l Marx- Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation, class struggle. Emile Durkheim- Division of labour, social fact, suicide, religion and society. Max Weber- Social action, ideal types, authority, bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. Talcolt Parsons- Social system, pattern variables. Robert K. Merton- Latent and manifest functions, conformity and deviance, reference groups. Mead - Self and identity.

5. Stratification and Mobility:
Concepts- equality, inequality, hierarchy, exclusion, poverty and deprivation. Theories of social stratification- Structural functionalist theory, Marxist theory, Weberian theory. Dimensions – Social stratification of class, status groups, gender, ethnicity and race. Social mobility- open and closed systems, types of mobility, sources and causes of mobility. 

6. Works and Economic Life:
Social organization of work in different types of society- slave society, feudal society, industrial /capitalist society. Formal and informal  rganization of work. Labour and society.

7. Politics and Society:
Sociological theories of power. Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups, and political parties. Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society, ideology. Protest, agitation, social movements, collective action, revolution.8. Religion and Society: Sociological theories of religion.Types of religious practices: animism, monism, pluralism, sects, cults. Religion in modern society: religion and science, secularization, religious revivalism, fundamentalism.

9. Systems of Kinship:
Family, household, marriage. Types and forms of family. Lineage and descent. Patriarchy and sexual division oflabour. Contemporary trends.
10. Social Change in Modern Society: Sociological theories of social change. Development and dependency. Agents of social change. Education and social change. Science, technology and social change.



A. Introducing Indian Society:
(i) Perspectives on the study of Indian society: Indology (GS. Ghurye). Structural functionalism (M N Srinivas). Marxist sociology (A R Desai).

(ii) Impact of colonial rule on Indian society : Social background of Indian nationalism. Modernization of Indian tradition. Protests and movements during the colonial period. Social reforms.

B. Social Structure:
(i) Rural and Agrarian Social Structure: The idea of Indian village and village studies. Agrarian social structure - evolution of land tenure system, land reforms.

(ii) Caste System: Perspectives on the study of caste systems: GS Ghurye, M N Srinivas, Louis Dumont, Andre Beteille. Features of caste system. Untouchability - forms and perspectives.

(iii) Tribal communities in India: Definitional problems. Geographical spread. Colonial policies and tribes. Issues of integration and autonomy.

(iv) Social Classes in India: Agrarian class structure. Industrial class structure.Middle classes in India. 

(v) Systems of Kinship in India: Lineage and descent in India. Types of kinship systems. Family and marriage in India. Household dimensions of the family.

(vi) Religion and Society: Religious communities in India. Problems of religious minorities. C. Social Changes in India:

(i) Visions of Social Change in India: Idea of development planning and mixed economy. Constitution, law and social change. Education and social change.

(ii) Rural and Agrarian transformation in India: Programmes of rural development, Community Development Programme, cooperatives, poverty
alleviation schemes.Green revolution and social change. Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture . Problems of rural labour, bondage,migration.

(iii) Industrialization and Urbanisation in India: Evolution of modern industry in India. Growth of urban settlements in India. Working class: structure, growth, class mobilization. Informal sector, child labour. Slums and deprivation in urban areas.

(iv) Politics and Society: Nation, democracy and citizenship. Political parties, pressure groups , social and political elite. Regionalism and decentralization of power. Secularization

(v) Social Movements in Modern India: Peasants and farmers movements. Women's movement. Backward classes & Dalit movement.
Environmental movements. Ethnicity and Identity movements. (vi) Population Dynamics: Population size, growth, composition and distribution. Components of population growth: birth, death, migration.
Population policy and family planning. Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infant mortality, reproductive health.

(vii) Challenges of Social Transformation: Crisis of development: displacement, environmental problems and sustainability. Poverty, deprivation and inequalities. Violence against women. Caste conflicts. Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism.Illiteracy and disparities in education.

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