1.1 Partitioning of food energy within the animal. Direct and indirect calorimetry. Carbon - nitrogenbalance and comparative slaughter methods. Systems for expressing energy value of foods inruminants, pigs and poultry. Energy requirements for maintenance, growth, pregnancy, lactation, egg,wool, and meat production.
1.2 Latest advances in protein nutrition. Energy protein interrelationships. Evaluation of protein quality.Use of NPN compounds in ruminant diets. Protein requirements for maintenance, growth, pregnancy,lactation, egg, wool and meat production.
1.3 Major and trace minerals - Their sources, physiological functions and deficiency symptoms. Toxicminerals. Mineral interactions. Role of fat-soluble and water - soluble vitamins in the body, theirsources and deficiency symptoms.
1.4 Feed additives - methane inhibitors, probiotics, enzymes, antibiotics, hormones, oligosaccharides,antioxidants, emulsifiers, mould inhibitors, buffers etc. Use and abuse of growth promoters likehormones and antibiotics - latest concepts.
1.5 Conservation of fodders. Storage of feeds and feed ingredients. Recent advances in feed technologyand feed processing. Anti - nutritional and toxic factors present in livestock feeds. Feed analysis andquality control. Digestibility trials - direct, indirect and indicator methods. Predicting feed intake ingrazing animals.
1.6 Advances in ruminant nutrition. Nutrient requirements. Balanced rations. Feeding of calves,pregnant, work animals and breeding bulls. Strategies for feeding milch animals during different stagesof lactation cycle. Effect of feeding on milk composition. Feeding of goats for meat and milkproduction. Feeding of sheep for meat and wool production.
1.7 Swine Nutrition. Nutrient requirements. Creep, starter, grower and finisher rations. Feeding of pigsfor lean meat production. Low cost rations for swine.
1.8 Poultry nutrition. Special features of poultry nutrition. Nutrient requirements for meat and eggproduction. Formulation of rations for different classes of layers and broilers.
2. Animal Physiology
2.1 Physiology of blood and its circulation, respiration; excretion. Endocrine glands in health anddisease.
2.2 Blood constituents - Properties and functions-blood cell formationHaemoglobin synthesis andchemistryplasma proteins production, classification and properties, coagulation of blood;Haemorrhagicdisorders-anticoagulants-blood groups-Blood volumePlasma expanders-Buffer systems in blood.Biochemical tests and their significance in disease diagnosis.
2.3 Circulation - Physiology of heart, cardiac cycle, heart sounds, heart beat, electrocardiograms. Workand efficiency of heart-effect of ions on heart functionmetabolism of cardiac muscle, nervous andchemical regulation of heart, effect of temperature and stress on heart, blood pressure and hypertension,osmotic regulation, arterial pulse, vasomotor regulation of circulation, shock. Coronary and pulmonarycirculation, Blood-Brain barrier- Cerebrospinal fluid- circulation in birds.
2.4 Respiration - Mechanism of respiration, Transport and exchange of gases -neural control ofrespiration-chemoreceptors-hypoxia-respiration in birds.
2.5 Excretion-Structure and function of kidney-formation of urine-methods of studying renal function-renal regulation of acid-base balance: physiological constituents of urine-renal failure-passive venouscongestion-Urinary secretion in chicken-Sweat glands and their function. Bio-chemical test for urinarydysfunction.
2.6 Endocrine glands - Functional disorders their symptoms and diagnosis. Synthesis of hormones,mechanism and control of secretion- hormonal receptorsclassification and function.
2.7 Growth and Animal ProductionPrenatal and postnatal growth, maturation, growth curves, measuresof growth, factors affecting growth, conformation, body composition, meat quality.
2.8 Physiology of Milk Production, Reproduction and Digestion- Current status of hormonal control ofmammary development, milk secretion and milk ejection, Male and Female reproductive organs, theircomponents and functions. Digestive organs and their functions.
2.9 Environmental PhysiologyPhysiological relations and their regulation; mechanisms of adaptation,environmental factors and regulatory mechanisms involved in animal behaviour, climatology - variousparameters and their importance. Animal ecology. Physiology of behaviour. Effect of stress on healthand production.
Semen quality- Preservation and Artificial Insemination- Components of semen, composition ofspermatozoa, chemical and physical properties of ejaculated semen, factors affecting semen in vivo andin vitro. Factors affecting semen production and quality, preservation, composition of diluents, spermconcentration, transport of diluted semen. Deep freezing techniques in cows, sheep, goats, swine andpoultry. Detection of oestrus and time of insemination for better conception. Anoestrus and repeatbreeding.
4.Livestock Production and Management:
4.1 Commercial Dairy FarmingComparison of dairy farming in India with advanced countries.Dairying under mixed farming and as specialized farming, economic dairy farming. Starting of a dairyfarm, Capital and land requirement, organization of the dairy farm. Opportunities in dairy farming,factors determining the efficiency of dairy animal. Herd recording, budgeting, cost of milk production,pricing policy; Personnel Management. Developing Practical and Economic rations for dairy cattle;supply of greens throughout the year, feed and fodder requirements of Dairy Farm. Feeding regimes foryoung stock and bulls, heifers and breeding animals; new trends in feeding young and adult stock;Feeding records.
4.2 Commercial meat, egg and wool production- Development of practical and economic rations forsheep, goats, pigs, rabbits and poultry. Supply of greens, fodder, feeding regimes for young and maturestock. New trends in enhancing production and management. Capital and land requirements and socio-economic concept.
4.3 Feeding and management of animals under drought, flood and other natural calamities
5.Genetics and Animal Breeding:
History of animal genetics. Mitosis and Meiosis: Mendelian inheritance; deviations to Mendeliangenetics; Expression of genes; Linkage and crossing over; Sex determination, sex influenced and sexlimited characters; Blood groups and polymorphism; Chromosome aberrations; Cytoplasmicinheritance. Gene and its structure; DNA as a genetic material; Genetic code and protein synthesis;Recombinant DNA technology. Mutations, types of mutations, methods for detecting mutations andmutation rate. Trans-genesis.
5.1 Population Genetics applied to Animal Breeding- Quantitative Vs. qualitative traits; HardyWeinberg Law; Population Vs. individual; Gene and genotypic frequency; Forces changing genefrequency; Random drift and small populations; Theory of path coefficient; Inbreeding, methods ofestimating inbreeding coefficient, systems of inbreeding, Effective population size; Breeding value,estimation of breeding value, dominance and epistatic deviation; Partitioning of variation; Genotype Xenvironment correlation and genotype X environment interaction; role of multiple measurements;Resemblance between relatives.
5.2 Breeding Systems- Breeds of livest- sock and Poultry. Heritability, repeatability and genetic andphenotypic correlations, their methods of estimation and precision of estimates; Aids to selection andtheir relative merits; Individual, pedigree, family and within family selection; Progeny testing; Methodsof selection; Construction of selection indices and their uses; Comparative evaluation of genetic gainsthrough various selection methods; Indirect selection and correlated response; Inbreeding, out breeding,upgrading, cross-breeding and synthesis of breeds; Crossing of inbred lines for commercial production;Selection for general and specific combining ability; Breeding for threshold characters. Sire index.
Basic philosophy, objectives, concept and principles of extension. Different Methods adopted toeducate farmers under rural conditions. Generation of technology, its transfer and feedback. Problemsand constraints in transfer of technology. Animal husbandry programmes for rural development.
1.Anatomy, Pharmacology and Hygiene:
1.1 Histology and Histological Techniques: Paraffin embedding technique of tissue processing and H.E.staining - Freezing microtomy- MicroscopyBright field microscope and electron microscope.Cytology-structure of cell, organells and inclusions; cell division-cell types- Tissues and theirclassificationembryonic and adult tissues-Comparative histology of organs-Vascular. Nervous,digestive, respiratory, musculo- skeletal and urogenital systems- Endocrine glands -Integuments-senseorgans.
1.2 Embryology - Embryology of vertebrates with special reference to aves and domestic mammalsgametogenesis-fertilization-germ layers- foetal membranes and placentation-types of placenta indomestic mammals-Teratology-twins and twinning- organogenesis -germ layer derivatives-endodermal, mesodermal and ectodermal derivates.
1.3 Bovine Anatomy- Regional Anatomy: Paranasal sinuses of OX- surface anatomy of salivary glands.Regional anatomy of infraorbital, maxillary, mandibuloalveolar,mental and cornual nerve block.Regional anatomy of paravertebral nerves, pudendal nerve, median ulnar and radial nerves-tibial,fibularand digital nerves-Cranial nerves-structures involved in epidural anaesthesia-superficial lymph nodes-surface anatomy of visceral organs of thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities-comparative features oflocomotor apparatus and their application in the biomechanics of mammalian body.
1.4 Anatomy of Fowl- Musculo-skeletal system-functional anatomy in relation to respiration andflying, digestion and egg production.
1.5 Pharmacology and therapeutic drugs - Cellular level of pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics.Drugs acting on fluids and electrolyte balance. Drugs acting on Autonomic nervous system. Modernconcepts of anaesthesia and dissociative anaesthetics. Autacoids. Antimicrobials and principles ofchemotherapy in microbial infections. Use of hormones in therapeutics- chemotherapy of parasiticinfections. Drug and economic concerns in the Edible tissues of animals- chemotherapy of Neoplasticdiseases. Toxicity due to insecticides, plants, metals, non-metals, zootoxins and mycotoxins.
1.6 Veterinary Hygiene with reference to water, air and habitation - Assessment of pollution of water,air and soil- Importance of climate in animal health- effect of environment on animal function andperformance-relationship between industrialization and animal agriculture- animal housingrequirements for specific categories of domestic animals viz. pregnant cows and sows, milking cows,broiler birdsstress, strain and productivity in relation to animal habitation.
2.1 Etiology, epidemiology pathogenesis, symptoms, postmortem lesions, diagnosis, and control ofinfectious diseases of cattle, sheep and goat, horses, pigs and poultry.
2.2 Etiology, epidemiology, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment of production diseases of cattle, horse, pigand poultry.
2.3 Deficiency diseases of domestic animals and birds.
2.4 Diagnosis and treatment of non-specific conditions like impaction, Bloat, Diarrhoea, Indigestion,dehydration, stroke, poisoning.
2.5 Diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders.
2.6 Principles and methods of immunization of animals against specific diseasesherd immunity- diseasefree zones- zero disease concept- chemoprophylaxis.
2.7 Anaesthesia- local, regional and general-preanesthetic medication. Symptoms and surgicalinterference in fractures and dislocation. Hernia, choking abomasal displacement- Caesarianoperations. Rumenotomy-Castrations.
2.8 Disease investigation techniques.- Materials for laboratory investigationEstablishment of AnimalHealth CentersDisease free zone.
3. Veterinary Public Health:
3.1 Zoonoses. - Classification, definition, role of animals and birds in prevalence and transmission ofzoonotic diseasesoccupational zoonotic diseases.
3.2 Epidemiology- Principle, definition of epidemiological terms, application of epidemiologicalmeasures in the study of diseases and disease control. Epidemiological features of air, water and foodborne infections. OIE regulations, WTO, sanitary and phytosanitary measures.
3.3 Veterinary Jurisprudence- Rules and Regulations for improvement of animal quality and preventionof animal diseases - State and central rules for prevention of animal and animal product borne diseases-S P C A- Veterolegal casesCertificates -Materials and Methods of collection of samples for veterolegalinvestigation.
4. Milk and Milk Products Technology:
4.1 Market Milk: Quality, testing and grading of raw milk. Processing, packaging, storing, distribution,marketing, defects and their control. Preparation of the following milks: Pasteurized, standardized,toned, double toned, sterilized, homogenized, reconstituted, recombined and flavoured milks.Preparation of cultured milks, cultures and their management, yoghurt, Dahi, Lassi and Srikhand.Preparation of flavoured and sterilized milks. Legal standards. Sanitation requirement for clean andsafe milk and for the milk plant equipment.
4.2 Milk Products Technology: Selection of raw materials, processing, storing , distributing andmarketing milk products such as Cream, Butter, Ghee, Khoa, Channa, Cheese, condensed, evaporated,dried milk and baby food, Ice cream and Kulfi; by-products, whey products, butter milk, lactose andcasein. Testing, grading, judging milk products- BIS and Agmark specifications, legal standards,quality control and nutritive properties. Packaging, processing and operational control. Costing of dairyproducts
5. Meat Hygiene and Technology:
5.1 Meat Hygiene.
5.1.1 Ante mortem care and management of food animals, stunning, slaughter and dressing operations;abattoir requirements and designs; Meat inspection procedures and judgment of carcass meat cuts-grading of carcass meat cuts- duties and functions of Veterinarians in wholesome meat production.
5.1.2 Hygenic methods of handling production of meat- Spoilage of meat and control measures- Post -slaughter physicochemical changes in meat and factors that influence them- Quality improvementmethods - Adulteration of meat and detection - Regulatory provisions in Meat trade and Industry.
5.2 Meat Technology.5.2.1 Physical and chemical characteristics of meat- Meat emulsions- Methods of preservation of meat-Curing, canning, irradiation, packaging of meat and meat products, processing and formulations.
5.3 By- products- Slaughter house byproducts and their utilization- Edible and inedible by products-Social and economic implications of proper utilization of slaughter house by-products- Organ productsfor food and pharmaceuticals.
5.4 Poultry Products TechnologyChemical composition and nutritive value of poultry meat, pre -slaughter care and management. Slaughtering techniques, inspection, preservation of poultry meat andproducts. Legal and BIS standards. Structure, composition and nutritive value of eggs. Microbialspoilage. Preservation and maintenance. Marketing of poultry meat, eggs and products. Value addedmeat products.
5.5 Rabbit/Fur Animal farming - Rabbit meat production. Disposal and utilization of fur and wool andrecycling of waste by products. Grading of wool.
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