Geography Main Syllabus


Principles of Geography

Physical Geography

1. Geomorphology: Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces;Origin and evolution of the earth's crust; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions of theearth's interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics; Recent views on mountainbuilding; Vulcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Landscapedevelopment ; Denudation chronology; Channel morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development ;Applied Geomorphology : Geohydrology, economic geology and environment.

2.Climatology: Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmosphericcirculation; atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams;Air masses and fronto genesis, Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types and distribution of precipitation;Weather and Climate; Koppen's, Thornthwaite's and Trewartha's classification of world climates;Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change and role and response of man in climatic changes, Appliedclimatology and Urban climate.

3.Oceanography: Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; Temperature andsalinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves, currents and tides; Marineresources: biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs, coral bleaching; sea-level changes; law ofthe sea and marine pollution.

4.Biogeography: Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion,Degradation and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; Problemsof deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry; agroforestry; Wild life; Major gene poolcentres.

5.Environmental Geography: Principle of ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence of manon ecology and environment; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem theirmanagement and conservation; Environmental degradation, management and conservation;Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental policy; Environmental hazards and remedialmeasures; Environmental education and legislation.

Human Geography

1. Perspectives in Human Geography: Areal differentiation; regional synthesis; Dichotomy anddualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and locational analysis; radical, behavioural,human and welfare approaches; Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural regions of the world;Human development index.

2.Economic Geography: World economic development: measurement and problems; World resourcesand their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth; World agriculture: typology of agriculturalregions; agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutrition problems; Food security; famine:causes, effects and remedies; World industries: locational patterns and problems; patterns of worldtrade.

3.Population and Settlement Geography: Growth and distribution of world population; demographicattributes; Causes and consequences of migration; concepts of over-under-and optimum population;Population theories, world population problems and policies, Social well-being and quality of life;Population as social capital. Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in ruralsettlements; Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphology: Concepts of primate city and rank-sizerule; Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural - urban fringe; Satellitetowns; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development of cities.

4.Regional Planning: Concept of a region; Types of regions and methods of regionalisation; Growthcentres and growth poles; Regional imbalances; regional development strategies; environmental issuesin regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.

5.Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography: Systems analysis in Human geography;Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models; Central Place theories of Christaller andLosch;Perroux and Boudeville; Von Thunen's model of agricultural location; Weber's model ofindustrial location; Ostov's model of stages of growth. Heartland and Rimland theories; Laws ofinternational boundaries and frontiers.


Geography Of India

1. Physical Setting: Space relationship of India with neighboring countries; Structure and relief;Drainage system and watersheds; Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfallpatterns, Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods and droughts; Climatic regions; Naturalvegetation; Soil types and their distributions.

2. Resources: Land, surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources; Forestand wild life resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.

3. Agriculture: Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; Institutional factors: land holdings,land tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, cropcombination, land capability; Agro and social-forestry; Green revolution and its socio- economic andecological implications; Significance of dry farming; Livestock resources and white revolution; aqua -culture; sericulture, apiculture and poultry; agricultural regionalisation; agro-climatic zones;agroecological regions.

4. Industry: Evolution of industries; Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel,aluminium, fertilizer, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and agro-basedindustries; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector undertakings; Industrial regionali-sation; New industrial policies; Multinationals and liberalization; Special Economic Zones; Tourismincluding eco - tourism.

5. Transport, Communication and Trade: Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline networksand their complementary roles in regional development; Growing importance of ports on national andforeign trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy; Export processing zones; Developments in communicationand information technology and their impacts on economy and society; Indian space programme.

6. Cultural Setting: Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial, linguistic and ethnic diversities;religious minorities; major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; cultural regions; Growth, distributionand density of population; Demographic attributes: sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force,dependency ratio, longevity; migration (inter-regional, intra- regional and international) and associatedproblems; Population problems and policies; Health indicators.

7. Settlements: Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments;Morphology of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; Conurbations and metropolitanregions; urban sprawl; Slums and associated problems; town planning; Problems of urbanization andremedies.

8. Regional Development and Planning: Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year Plans;Integrated rural development programmes; Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning; Command areadevelopment; Watershed management; Planning for backward area, desert, drought prone, hill, tribalarea development; multi-level planning; Regional planning and development of island territories.

9. Political Aspects: Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganisation; Emergence of newstates; Regional consciousness and inter state issues; international boundary of India and related issues;Cross border terrorism; India's role in world affairs; Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.

10. Contemporary Issues: Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes,Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues relating to environmental pollution; Changes inpatterns of land use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management;Population explosion and food security; Environmental degradation; Deforestation, desertification andsoil erosion; Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development;Concept of sustainable growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers;Globalisation and Indian economy.

NOTE: Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory map question pertinent to subjectscovered by this paper.

Download Syllabus

Other Optional Subject Syllabus

Arabic Syllabus Agriculture Syllabus
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science Syllabus Botany Syllabus
Chemistry Syllabus Civil Engineering Syllabus
Commerce & Accountancy Syllabus Economics Syllabus
Electrical Engineering Syllabus Geology Syllabus
History Syllabus Law Syllabus
Mathematics Syllabus Mechanical Engineering Syllabus
Medical Science Syllabus Physics Syllabus
Political Science Syllabus Psychology Syllabus
Public Administration Syllabus Sociology Syllabus
Statistics Syllabus Zoology Syllabus
Philosophy Syllabus Anthropology Syllabus
Management Syllabus
Get Instant News Updates
Notification Settings X
Time Settings
Clear Notification X
Do you want to clear all the notifications from your inbox?
Settings X