Geology Main Syllabus



1. General Geology:

The Solar System, meteorites, origin and interior of the earth. Radioactivity and age of earth; Volcanoes- causes and products, volcanic belts. Earthquakes-causes, effects, earthquake belts, seismicity of India, intensity and magnitude, seismographs. Island arcs, deep sea trenches and mid- ocean ridges. Continental drift-evidences and mechanics; seafloor spreading, plate tectonics. Isostasy, orogeny and epeirogeny. Continents and oceans.

2. Geomorphology and Remote Sensing:

Basic concepts of geomorphology. Weathering and mass wasting. Landforms, slopes and drainage. Geomorphic cycles and their interpretation. Morphology and its relation to structures and lithology. Applications of geomorphology in mineral prospecting, civil engineering,. hydrology and environmental studies. Geomorphology of Indian subcontinent. Aerial photographs and their interpretation-mertis and limitations. The Electromagnetic Spectrum.

Orbiting satellites and sensor systems. Indian Remote Sensing Satellites. Satellites data products. Applications of remote sensing in geology. The Geographic Information System and its applications. Global Positioning System.

3. Structural geology:
Principles of geologic mapping and map reading, projection diagrams, stress and strain ellipsoid and stress-strain relationships of elastic, plastic and viscous materials. Strain markers in deformed rocks. Behaviour of minerals and rocks under deformation conditions. Folds and faults classification and mechanics. Structural analysis of folds, foliations, lineations, joints and faults, unconformities. Superposed deformation. Time-relationship between crystallization and deformation. Introduction to petrofabrics.



1. Paleontology:

Species- definition and nomenclature. Megafossils and Microfossils. Modes of preservation of fossils.
Different kinds of microfossils. Application of microfossils in correlation, petroleum exploration,
paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic studies. Morphology, geological history and evolutionary trend in
Cephalopoda, Trilobita, Brachiopoda, Echinoidea and Anthozoa. Stratigraphic utility of Ammonoidea,

Trilobita and Graptoloidea. Evolutionary trend in Hominidae, Equidae and Proboscidae. Siwalik fauna.
Gondwana flora and its importance.

2. Stratigraphy and Geology of India:

Classification of stratigraphic sequences: lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, chro-nostratigraphic and
magnetostratigraphic and their interrelationships. Distribution and classification of Precambrian rocks
of India. Study of stratigraphic distribution and lithology of Phanerozoic rocks of India with reference
to fauna, flora and economic importance. Major boundary problems- Cambrian/Precambrian,
Permian/Triassic, Cretaceous/Tertiary and Pliocene/Pleistocene. Study of climatic conditions,
paleogeography and igneous activity in the Indian subcontinent in the geological past. Tectonic
framework of India. Evolution of the Himalayas.

3. Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology:

Hydrologic cycle and genetic classification of water. Movement of subsurface water. Springs. Porosity,
permeability, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity and storage coefficient, classification of aquifers.
water-bearing characteristics of rocks. Groundwater chemistry. Salt water intrusion. Types of wells.
Drainage basin morphometry. Exploration for groundwater. Groundwater recharge. Problems and
management of groundwater. Rainwater harvesting. Engineering properties of rocks. Geological
investigations for dams, tunnels and bridges. Rock as construction material. Alkali-aggregate reaction.
Landslides-causes, prevention and rehabilitation. Earthquake-resistant structures.



1. Mineralogy:

Classification of crystals into systems and classes of symmetry. International system of crystallographic
notation. Use of projection diagrams to represent crystal symmetry. Crystal defects. Elements of X-ray

Petrological microscope and accessories. Optical properties of common rock forming minerals.
Pleochroism, extinction angle, double refraction, birefringence, twinning and dispersion in minerals.
Physical and chemical characters of rock forming slilicate mineral groups. Structural classification of
silicates. Common minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Minerals of the carbonate, phosphate,
sulphide and halide groups.

2. Igneous ad Metamorphic Petrology:

Generation and crystallisation of magma. Crystallisation of albite-anorthite, diopside-anorthite and
diopside-wollastonite-silica systems. Reaction principle., Magmatic differentiation and assimilation.
Petrogenetic significance of the textures and structrues of igneous rocks. Petrography and petrogenesis
of granite, syenite, diorite, basic and ultrabasic groups, charnockite, anorthosite and alkaline rocks.
Carbonatites. Deccan volcanic province.

Types and agents of metamporphism. Metamporphic grdes and zones. Phase rule. Facies of regional
and contact metamorphism. ACF and AKF diagrams. Textures and structures of metamporphic rocks.
Metamorphism of arenaceous, argillaceous and basic rocks. Minerals assemblages Retrogrademetamorphism. Metasomatism and granitisation, migmatites, Granulite terrains of India.

3. Sedimentology:

Sedimentary rocks: Processes of formation. diagnosis and lithification. Properties of sediments. Clastic
and non-clastic rocks-their classification, petrography and depositional environment. Sedimentaryfacies and provenance. Sedimentary structures and their significance. Heavy minerals and their significance. Sedminetary basins of India.


Section B

1. Economic Geology:

Ore, ore minerals and gangue, tenor of ore, classification of ore deposits. Process of formation of
minerals deposits. Controls of ore localisation. Ore textures and structures. Metallogenic epochs and
provinces. Geology of the important Indian deposits of aluminium, chromium, copper, gold, iron, lead
zinc, manganese, titanium, uranium and thorium and industrial minerals. Deposits of coal and
petroleum in India. National Mineral Policy. Conservation and utilization of mineral resources. Marine
mineral resources and Law of Sea.

2. Mining Geology:

Methods of prospecting-geological, geophysical, geochemical and geobotanical. Techniques of
sampling. Estimation of reserves or ore. Methods of exploration and mining metallic ores, industrial
minerals and marine mineral resources. Mineral beneficiation and ore dressing.

3. Geochemistry and Environmental Geology:

Cosmic abundance of elements. Composition of the planets and meteorites. Structure and composition
of earth and distribution of elements. Trace elements. Elements of crystal chemistry-types of chemical
bonds, coordination number. Isolmorphism and polymorphism. Elementary thermodynamics.

Natural hazards-floods, landslides, coastal erosion, earthquakes and volcanic activity and mitigation.
Environmental impact of urbanization, open cast mining, industrial and radioactive waste disposal, use
of fertilizers, dumping of mine waste and fly-ash. Pollution of ground and surface water, marine
pollution Environment protection-legislative measures in India.

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