Explained- Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage Policy Framework and its Deployment Mechanism in India

Recently, a report titled 'Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage Policy Framework and its Deployment Mechanism in India' was published. The research investigates the significance of carbon capture, use, and storage as an emission reduction method for achieving deep decarbonization from difficult-to-abate industries. The paper highlights broad-level policy actions required across several sectors to implement it.

 
Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage Policy

Policy Framework for Capacity Utilization and Storage (CCUS) in India and its Deployment Mechanism

CCUS is critical to assuring India's long-term development and progress, notably in the production of clean products and energy, which will lead to an Atmanirbhar Bharat.
As India updates its NDC targets to achieve 50% of total installed capacity from non-fossil-based energy sources by 2030, a 45% reduction in emission intensity by 2030, and Net Zero by 2070, the role of Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS) becomes important as a reduction strategy to achieve decarbonization from difficult-to-abate sectors.

"CCUS can enable the development of clean products while still utilizing our abundant coal resources, cutting imports and leading to an Atmanirbhar Indian economy." Suman Bery, Vice President, NITI Aayog.

CCUS projects will also result in major job creation. It is estimated that 750 mtpa of carbon capture by 2050 will generate 8-10 million full-time equivalent (FTE) job opportunities in a phased way.

"India's reliance on fossil-based energy resources will likely remain. Hence CCUS strategy in the Indian context is required," said Dr V.K Saraswat, Member, NITI Aayog.
According to the report, CCUS can provide a wide range of opportunities to convert captured CO2 to various value-added products such as green urea, food and beverage form application, building materials (concrete and aggregates), chemicals (methanol and ethanol), polymers (including bio-plastics), and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) with large market opportunities in India, thus significantly contributing to a circular economy.

After China and the United States, India is the world's third highest CO2 emitter, with yearly emissions estimated at 2.6 gigatonnes (gtpa). The Indian government has pledged to cut CO2 emissions by half by 2050 and reach net zero by 2070. The expansion of renewable power capacity has been one of the key success stories of India's clean energy transition; however, the power sector accounts for only about one-third of total CO2 emissions, which will continue to decline as renewables increasingly replace fossil fuel-based power generation.

Beverage form application, building products (concrete and aggregates), chemicals (methanol and ethanol), polymers (including bio-plastics), and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) all have large market prospects in India, contributing to the overall growth.

CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE: WHAT IS IT?

Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a method of lowering carbon emissions that could be critical in combating global warming. It is a three-step process that involves absorbing carbon dioxide produced by power generation or industrial activity such as steel or cement production, transporting it, and storing it deep below. In this section, we will look at the potential benefits of CCS and how it works.

Carbon Capture & Global Warming

CCS entails capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial operations such as steel and cement manufacture and the combustion of fossil fuels in power generation. This carbon is then transferred by ship or pipeline from where it was created and buried deep down in geological formations.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) stated that to meet the Paris Agreement's ambitions of limiting future temperature increases to 1.5°C (2.7°F), we must do more than increase our efforts to reduce emissions; we must also deploy technologies to remove carbon from the atmosphere. CCS is one of these technologies and, as such, has the potential to play a key role in combating global warming.

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