India which is known as the Tiger land in the world accounts for 75% of the total global population of Tigers. Since 2006, there has been a consistent rise in the number of tigers till 2018. As per the estimation of the World Wildlife Forum and Global Tiger Forum now there are around 2,967 tigers in India which played a significant role in increasing the total tiger population up to 3,890 globally.
Project Tiger In India
The Project Tiger as an initiative to protect and alter the vulnerable situations of Indian tigers was launched on April 1, 1973 by the Government of India in the era of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.
Under Project Tiger, initially 9 Tiger reserves were set up which has now reached 53 in numbers. These tiger reserves cover the total protected area of 71,027.1 km.2 These areas come under the state Forestry Department which ensures the maintenance of viable populations of the conservation dependent Bengal tigers in India.
Objectives of Project Tiger
The Project Tiger was initiated to save the declining population of Bengal Tigers in its natural habitat, to protect them from extinction and to preserve the ecosystem by preserving areas of biological importance and Natural heritage. Some of the main objectives of project tiger are listed below.
- As a conservation program it was aimed to reduce and mitigate the factors leading to the reduction in the number of tigers.
- At some point in the 20th century, the tiger population used to be around 20,000 to 40,000. But due to Hunting and poaching activities the numbers drastically downed to 1820 until seventies. At that time to save these precious creatures and flora and fauna the Government of India passed Wildlife Protection Act 1972.
Tiger Hotspots In India
As per the reports of 4th round of All-India Tiger Estimation 2018, an increase of 33% in number of tigers has been observed since 2014. It is a matter of praise that India has achieved the target of doubling the tiger count 4 years ahead of target year 2022. In India the main habitats of tigers are:
- Shivalik Hills and Gangetic Plains.
- Central Indian Landscapes and Western Ghats.
- Sunderban area.
- North-East hills and Brahmaputra Plains.
Key Findings of All India Tiger Estimation 2018 For UPSC
Here we are presenting the key findings of the All India Tiger Estimation report 2019 with some important facts on tigers that you must be aware of for examination purposes.
- The Tiger State of India Madhya Pradesh performed best with the highest number of tigers 526, followed by Karnataka 524 and Uttarakhand 442.
- The worst performing states were Chhattisgarh with 19 tigers and Mizoram with nil tiger population.
- In terms of wildlife sanctuaries, Madhya Pradesh's Pench Sanctuary and Kerala's Periyar Sanctuary are listed as the best managed tiger reserves in the country.
- No Tiger was found in Buxa, West Bengal, Palamu Jharkhand and Dumpa Mizoram reserves.
- Global tiger day is celebrated on July 10 every year. It was first celebrated in 2010 at St. Petersburg Tiger Summit in Russia in which all 13 tiger range countries came together and pledged for doubling the tiger population by 2022.
- The global tiger recovery plan is known as TX2.
- The Biggest Tiger Reserve in India is Nagarjuna Sagar, Shrishailam.
- Jim Corbett National Park, Uttarakhand, is the home of the maximum number of tigers.
- The First Tiger reserve of India was Bandipur Tiger Reserve.
- The Youngest tiger reserves in India are Guru Ghasidas National Park and Tamor Pingla Wildlife Sanctuary.
List of Tiger Reserves In India
Here is the list of all Tiger Reserves in India.
|Tiger Reserve||Year of creation||State|
|Dandeli-Anshi Tiger Reserve||2008-09||Karnataka|
|Biligiri Ranganatha Temple||2010-11||Karnataka|
|Srivilliputhur - Megamalai||2021||Tamil Nadu|
Guru Ghasidas National Park and
Tamor Pingla Wildlife Sanctuary