With the world gearing-up to pay its tributes to Mahatma Gandhi, fondly known as 'Bapu' on the eve of his 151th birth anniversary commemorated on October 2 every year as Gandhi Jayanti, here are the Top 5 freedom movements or struggles spearheaded by Gandhiji in sync with his principles of 'Ahimsa' or 'Non-Violence' in liberating India from the British rule which came about on August 15, 1947.
Here are the Top 5 freedom movements or struggles led by Mahatma Gandhi which eventually culminated in India's independence that students and people alike must know.
Quit India Movement - 1942
The Quit India Movement also known as the 'August Movement' was launched by Mahatma Gandhi on August 8, 1942 at the Bombay Session of Congress amid World War II calling for liberation of India form the British rule. It was here that Gandhiji gave the historic 'Do or Die' call exhorting Indians to participate in the freedom struggle resulting in the imprisonment of the entire Indian National Congress leadership without any trial. Although, the movement was eventually crushed, it compelled the British to look into the question of granting independence in the due course.
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) in 1992 marking the golden jubilee celebration of Quit India Movement issued a 1 rupee commemorative coin.
Civil Disobedience Movement - 1930
The Civil Disobedience Movement (CDM), also popularly known as Dandi March or Salt Satyagraha was launched by Mahatma Gandhi following the failure of Simon Commission with the objective of 'Complete Independence' from the British rule and to oppose the colonial laws imposed on people. The CDM or Dandi march was started by Gandhiji on March 12, 1930 along with 80 of his trusted followers from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi in Gujarat. An estimated 90,000 people were arrest in this anti-imperialist struggle. Gandhiji too was arrested in January 1932 along with his fellow companions.
Non-Cooperation Movement - 1920
The Non-Cooperation movement (NCM) was formally launched on August 1, 1920 by Mahatma Gandhi as an opposition to the Rowlatt Act of 1919, and the Jallianwala Bagh massacre of April 13, 1919 with the objective of 'Swaraj' or Self-Governance and securing complete independence from the British. Through the 'Non-Cooperation Movement' which was a non-violent struggle Gandhiji appealed to the people to boycott British made clothing, goods and other services and promote Khadi. However, the movement was suspended on February 1922 following a violent incident at Chauri Chaura.
Khilafat Agitation -1919
The Khilafat Agitation or Khilafat Movement was launched in 1919 under the guidance of Mahatma Gandhi against the dismemberment of Ottoman Empire post-World War I, and attempts to abolish the Ottoman Caliphate by the British. Demanding the restoration of Caliphate in Turkey, the Central Khilafat Committee organised an all India Hartal on August 1, 2020 under the leadership of Gandhiji. Gandhi also returned the 'Kaiser-i-Hind' medal awarded to him for his services in the war to the British which enhanced his stature as a national and mass leader in no time.
Champaran Satyagraha -1917
The Champaran Satyagraha of 1917 was the first mass-based movement led by Mahatma Gandhi following his return to India from South Africa to protest against gross injustice and erroneous polices imposed on the farmers, particularly indigo cultivators by the landlords under the British rule. The farmers of Champaran in Bihar were protesting against the forced indigo farming without payment. It marks an important event in the history of India's freedom struggle that inspired several movements in leading to Indian independence.