XL - L Zoology

Section 1: Animal world

Animal diversity, distribution, systematics and classification of animals, phylogenetic


Section 2: Evolution

Origin and history of life on earth, theories of evolution, natural selection,

adaptation, speciation.

Section 3: Genetics

Basic Principles of inheritance, molecular basis of heredity, sex determination and

sex-linked characteristics, cytoplasmic inheritance, linkage, recombination and

mapping of genes in eukaryotes, population genetics.

Section 4: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates; replication, transcription and

translation; regulation of gene expression, organization of genome, Kreb’s cycle,

glycolysis, enzyme catalysis, hormones and their actions, vitamins.

Section 5: Cell Biology

Structure of cell, cellular organelles and their structure and function, cell cycle, cell

division, chromosomes and chromatin structure.

Section 6: Gene expression in Eukaryotes

Eukaryotic gene organization and expression (Basic principles of signal


Section 7: Animal Anatomy and Physiology

Comparative physiology, the respiratory system, circulatory system, digestive

system, the nervous system, the excretory system, the endocrine system, the

reproductive system, the skeletal system, osmoregulation.

Section 8: Parasitology and Immunology

Nature of parasite, host-parasite relation, protozoan and helminthic parasites, the

immune response, cellular and humoral immune response, evolution of the immune


Section 9: Development Biology

Embryonic development, cellular differentiation, organogenesis, metamorphosis,

genetic basis of development, stem cells.

Section 10: Ecology

The ecosystem, habitats, the food chain, population dynamics, species diversity,

zoogerography, biogeochemical cycles, conservation biology.

Section 11: Animal Behaviour

Types of behaviours, courtship, mating and territoriality, instinct, learning and

memory, social behaviour across the animal taxa, communication, pheromones,

evolution of animal behaviour.

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