XL - L Zoology
Section 1: Animal world
Animal diversity, distribution, systematics and classification of animals, phylogenetic
Section 2: Evolution
Origin and history of life on earth, theories of evolution, natural selection,
Section 3: Genetics
Basic Principles of inheritance, molecular basis of heredity, sex determination and
sex-linked characteristics, cytoplasmic inheritance, linkage, recombination and
mapping of genes in eukaryotes, population genetics.
Section 4: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates; replication, transcription and
translation; regulation of gene expression, organization of genome, Kreb’s cycle,
glycolysis, enzyme catalysis, hormones and their actions, vitamins.
Section 5: Cell Biology
Structure of cell, cellular organelles and their structure and function, cell cycle, cell
division, chromosomes and chromatin structure.
Section 6: Gene expression in Eukaryotes
Eukaryotic gene organization and expression (Basic principles of signal
Section 7: Animal Anatomy and Physiology
Comparative physiology, the respiratory system, circulatory system, digestive
system, the nervous system, the excretory system, the endocrine system, the
reproductive system, the skeletal system, osmoregulation.
Section 8: Parasitology and Immunology
Nature of parasite, host-parasite relation, protozoan and helminthic parasites, the
immune response, cellular and humoral immune response, evolution of the immune
Section 9: Development Biology
Embryonic development, cellular differentiation, organogenesis, metamorphosis,
genetic basis of development, stem cells.
Section 10: Ecology
The ecosystem, habitats, the food chain, population dynamics, species diversity,
zoogerography, biogeochemical cycles, conservation biology.
Section 11: Animal Behaviour
Types of behaviours, courtship, mating and territoriality, instinct, learning and
memory, social behaviour across the animal taxa, communication, pheromones,
evolution of animal behaviour.