Exam

# GATE: THERMODYNAMICS Syllabus

XE-E Thermodynamics

Section 1: Basic Concepts

Continuum and macroscopic approach; thermodynamic systems (closed and

open); thermodynamic properties and equilibrium; state of a system, state

postulate for simple compressible substances, state diagrams, paths and processes

on state diagrams; concepts of heat and work, different modes of work; zeroth law

of thermodynamics; concept of temperature.

Section 2: First Law of Thermodynamics

Concept of energy and various forms of energy; internal energy, enthalpy; specific

heats; first law applied to elementary processes, closed systems and control

Section 3: Second Law of Thermodynamics

Limitations of the first law of thermodynamics, concepts of heat engines and heat

pumps/refrigerators, Kelvin-Planck and Clausius statements and their equivalence;

reversible and irreversible processes; Carnot cycle and Carnot principles/theorems;

thermodynamic temperature scale; Clausius inequality and concept of entropy;

microscopic interpretation of entropy, the principle of increase of entropy, T-s

diagrams; second law analysis of control volume; availability and irreversibility; third

law of thermodynamics.

Section 4: Properties of Pure Substances

Thermodynamic properties of pure substances in solid, liquid and vapor phases; P-v-
T behaviour of simple compressible substances, phase rule, thermodynamic

property tables and charts, ideal and real gases, ideal gas equation of state and

van der Waals equation of state; law of corresponding states, compressibility factor

and generalized compressibility chart.

Section 5: Thermodynamic Relations

T-ds relations, Helmholtz and Gibbs functions, Gibbs relations, Maxwell relations,

Joule-Thomson coefficient, coefficient of volume expansion, adiabatic and

isothermal compressibilities, Clapeyron and Clapeyron-Clausius equations.

Section 6: Thermodynamic Cycles

Carnot vapor cycle, ideal Rankine cycle, Rankine reheat cycle, air-standard Otto

cycle, air-standard Diesel cycle, air-standard Brayton cycle, vapor-compression

refrigeration cycle.

Section 7: Ideal Gas Mixtures

Dalton’s and Amagat’s laws, properties of ideal gas mixtures, air-water vapor

mixtures and simple thermodynamic processes involving them; specific and relative

humidities, dew point and wet bulb temperature, adiabatic saturation temperature,

psychrometric chart.