XL - K Microbiology

Section 1: Historical Perspective

Discovery of microbial world; Landmark discoveries relevant to the field of

microbiology; Controversy over spontaneous generation; Role of microorganisms in

transformation of organic matter and in the causation of diseases.

Section 2: Methods in Microbiology

Pure culture techniques; Theory and practice of sterilization; Principles of microbial

nutrition; Enrichment culture techniques for isolation of microorganisms; Light-,

phase contrast- and electron-microscopy.

Section 3: Microbial Taxonomy and Diversity

Bacteria, Archea and their broad classification; Eukaryotic microbes: Yeasts, molds

and protozoa; Viruses and their classification; Molecular approaches to microbial


Section 4: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells: Structure and Function

Prokaryotic Cells: cell walls, cell membranes, mechanisms of solute transport across

membranes, Flagella and Pili, Capsules, Cell inclusions like endospores and gas

vesicles; Eukaryotic cell organelles: Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus,

mitochondria and chloroplasts.

Section 5: Microbial Growth

Definition of growth; Growth curve; Mathematical expression of exponential growth

phase; Measurement of growth and growth yields; Synchronous growth; Continuous

culture; Effect of environmental factors on growth.

Section 6: Control of Micro-organisms

Effect of physical and chemical agents; Evaluation of effectiveness of antimicrobial


Section 7: Microbial Metabolism

Energetics: redox reactions and electron carriers; An overview of metabolism;

Glycolysis; Pentose-phosphate pathway; Entner-Doudoroff pathway; Glyoxalate

pathway; The citric acid cycle; Fermentation; Aerobic and anaerobic respiration;

Chemolithotrophy; Photosynthesis; Calvin cycle; Biosynthetic pathway for fatty

acids synthesis; Common regulatory mechanisms in synthesis of amino acids;

Regulation of major metabolic pathways.

Section 8: Microbial Diseases and Host Pathogen Interaction

Normal microbiota; Classification of infectious diseases; Reservoirs of infection;

Nosocomial infection; Emerging infectious diseases; Mechanism of microbial

pathogenicity; Nonspecific defense of host; Antigens and antibodies; Humoral and

cell mediated immunity; Vaccines; Immune deficiency; Human diseases caused by

viruses, bacteria, and pathogenic fungi.

Section 8: Chemotherapy/Antibiotics

General characteristics of antimicrobial drugs; Antibiotics: Classification, mode of

action and resistance; Antifungal and antiviral drugs.

Section 9: Microbial Genetics

Types of mutation; UV and chemical mutagens; Selection of mutants; Ames test for

mutagenesis; Bacterial genetic system: transformation, conjugation, transduction,

recombination, plasmids, transposons; DNA repair; Regulation of gene expression:

repression and induction; Operon model; Bacterial genome with special reference

to E.coli; Phage λ and its life cycle; RNA phages; RNA viruses; Retroviruses; Basic

concept of microbial genomics.

Section 10: Microbial Ecology

Microbial interactions; Carbon, sulphur and nitrogen cycles; Soil microorganisms

associated with vascular plants.

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