XL - M Food Technology

Section 1: Food Chemistry and Nutrition

Carbohydrates: structure and functional properties of mono-, oligo-, & poly-
saccharides including starch, cellulose, pectic substances and dietary fibre,

gelatinization and retrogradation of starch. Proteins: classification and structure of

proteins in food, biochemical changes in post mortem and tenderization of

muscles. Lipids: classification and structure of lipids, rancidity, polymerization and

polymorphism. Pigments: carotenoids, chlorophylls, anthocyanins, tannins

and myoglobin. Food flavours: terpenes, esters, aldehydes, ketones and quinines.

Enzymes: specificity, simple and inhibition kinetics, coenzymes, enzymatic and non-
enzymatic browning. Nutrition: balanced diet, essential amino acids and essential

fatty acids, protein efficiency ratio, water soluble and fat soluble vitamins, role of

minerals in nutrition, co-factors, anti-nutrients, nutraceuticals, nutrient deficiency

diseases. Chemical and biochemical changes: changes occur in foods during

different processing.

Section 2: Food Microbiology

Characteristics of microorganisms: morphology of bacteria, yeast, mold and

actinomycetes, spores and vegetative cells, gram-staining. Microbial growth:

growth and death kinetics, serial dilution technique. Food spoilage: spoilage

microorganisms in different food products including milk, fish, meat, egg, cereals

and their products. Toxins from microbes: pathogens and non-pathogens including

Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia, Bacillus, Clostridium, and

Aspergillus genera. Fermented foods and beverages: curd, yoghurt, cheese, pickles,

soya-sauce, sauerkraut, idli, dosa, vinegar, alcoholic beverages and sausage.

Section 3: Food Products Technology

Processing principles: thermal processing, chilling, freezing, dehydration, addition of

preservatives and food additives, irradiation, fermentation, hurdle technology,

intermediate moisture foods. Food packaging and storage: packaging materials,

aseptic packaging, controlled and modified atmosphere storage. Cereal

processing and products: milling of rice, wheat, and maize, parboiling of paddy,

bread, biscuits, extruded products and ready to eat breakfast cereals. Oil

processing: expelling, solvent extraction, refining and hydrogenation. Fruits and

vegetables processing: extraction, clarification, concentration and packaging of

fruit juice, jam, jelly, marmalade, squash, candies, tomato sauce, ketchup, and

puree, potato chips, pickles. Plantation crops processing and products: tea, coffee,

cocoa, spice, extraction of essential oils and oleoresins from spices. Milk and milk

products processing: pasteurization and sterilization, cream, butter, ghee, ice-
cream, cheese and milk powder. Processing of animal products: drying, canning,

and freezing of fish and meat; production of egg powder. Waste utilization: pectin

from fruit wastes, uses of by-products from rice milling. Food standards and quality

maintenance: FPO, PFA, Agmark, ISI, HACCP, food plant sanitation and cleaning in

place (CIP).

Section 4: Food Engineering

Mass and energy balance; Momentum transfer: Flow rate and pressure drop

relationships for Newtonian fluids flowing through pipe, Reynolds number. Heat

transfer: heat transfer by conduction, convection, radiation, heat exchangers. Mass

transfer: molecular diffusion and Fick’s law, conduction and convective mass

transfer, permeability through single and multilayer films. Mechanical operations:

size reduction of solids, high pressure homogenization, filtration, centrifugation,

settling, sieving, mixing & agitation of liquid. Thermal operations: thermal sterilization,

evaporation of liquid foods, hot air drying of solids, spray and freeze-drying, freezing

and crystallization. Mass transfer operations: psychrometry, humidification and

dehumidification operations.

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