XL-J Botany

Section 1: Plant Systematics

Major systems of classification, plant groups, phylogenetic relationships and

molecular systematics.

Section 2: Plant Anatomy:

Plant cell structure and its components; cell wall and membranes; organization,

organelles, cytoskeleton, anatomy of root, stem and leaves, floral parts, embryo

and young seedlings, meristems, vascular system, their ontogeny, structure and

functions, secondary growth in plants and stellar organization.

Section 3: Morphogenesis & Development

Cell cycle, cell division, life cycle of an angiosperm, pollination, fertilization,

embryogenesis, seed formation, seed storage proteins, seed dormancy and


Concept of cellular totipotency, clonal propagation; organogenesis and somatic

embryogenesis, artificial seed, somaclonal variation, secondary metabolism in plant

cell culture, embryo culture, in vitro fertilization.

Section 4: Physiology and Biochemistry

Plant water relations, transport of minerals and solutes, stress physiology, stomatal

physiology, signal transduction, N2 metabolism, photosynthesis, photorespiration;

respiration, Flowering: photoperiodism and vernalization, biochemical mechanisms

involved in flowering; molecular mechanism of senencensce and aging,

biosynthesis, mechanism of action and physiological effects of plant growth

regulators, structure and function of biomolecules, (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids,

nucleic acid), enzyme kinetics.

Section 5: Genetics

Principles of Mendelian inheritance, linkage, recombination, genetic mapping;

extrachromosomal inheritance; prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome organization,

regulation of gene expression, gene mutation and repair, chromosomal aberrations

(numerical and structural), transposons.

Section 6: Plant Breeding and Genetic Modification

Principles, methods – selection, hybridization, heterosis; male sterility, genetic maps

and molecular markers, sporophytic and gametophytic self incompability,

haploidy, triploidy, somatic cell hybridization, marker-assisted selection, gene

transfer methods viz. direct and vector-mediated, plastid transformation, transgenic

plants and their application in agriculture, molecular pharming, plantibodies.

Section 7: Economic Botany

A general account of economically and medicinally important plants- cereals,

pulses, plants yielding fibers, timber, sugar, beverages, oils, rubber, pigments, dyes,

gums, drugs and narcotics. Economic importance of algae, fungi, lichen and


Section 8: Plant Pathology

Nature and classification of plant diseases, diseases of important crops caused by

fungi, bacteria,nematodes and viruses, and their control measures, mechanism(s)

of pathogenesis and resistance, molecular detection of pathogens; plant-microbe

beneficial interactions.

Section 9: Ecology and Environment

Ecosystems – types, dynamics, degradation, ecological succession; food chains

and energy flow; vegetation types of the world, pollution and global warming,

speciation and extinction, conservation strategies, cryopreservation,


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