Exam

# GATE: BIOTECHNOLOGY Syllabus

BT Biotechnology

Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrices and determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and

Eigen vectors. Calculus: Limit, continuity and differentiability, Partial derivatives, Maxima

and minima, Sequences and series, Test for convergence, Fourier Series. Differential

Equations: Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs, higher order ODEs with constant

coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Laplace transforms, PDE-Laplace, heat and

wave equations. Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation,

Random variables, Poisson, normal and binomial distributions, Correlation and regression

analysis. Numerical Methods: Solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations,

Integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, Single and multistep methods for differential

equations.

Section 2: General Biotechnology

Biochemistry: Biomolecules-structure and functions; Biological membranes, structure,

action potential and transport processes; Enzymes- classification, kinetics and mechanism

of action; Basic concepts and designs of metabolism (carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids

and nucleic acids) photosynthesis, respiration and electron transport chain; Bioenergetics

Microbiology: Viruses- structure and classification; Microbial classification and

diversity(bacterial, algal and fungal); Methods in microbiology; Microbial growth and

nutrition; Aerobic and anaerobic respiration; Nitrogen fixation; Microbial diseases and

host-pathogen interaction

Cell Biology: Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure; Cell cycle and cell growth control;

Cell-Cell communication, Cell signaling and signal transduction

Molecular Biology and Genetics: Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes;

Mutations and mutagenesis; Nucleic acid replication, transcription, translation and their

regulatory mechanisms in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Mendelian inheritance; Gene

interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; Extra

chromosomal inheritance; Microbial genetics (plasmids, transformation, transduction,

conjugation); Horizontal gene transfer and Transposable elements; RNA interference; DNA

damage and repair; Chromosomal variation; Molecular basis of genetic diseases

Analytical Techniques: Principles of microscopy-light, electron, fluorescent and confocal;

Centrifugation- high speed and ultra; Principles of spectroscopy-UV, visible, CD, IR, FTIR,

Raman, MS,NMR; Principles of chromatography- ion exchange, gel filtration, hydrophobic

interaction, affinity, GC,HPLC, FPLC; Electrophoresis; Microarray

Immunology: History of Immunology; Innate, humoral and cell mediated immunity;

Antigen; Antibody structure and function; Molecular basis of antibody diversity; Synthesis

of antibody and secretion; Antigen-antibody reaction; Complement; Primary and

secondary lymphoid organ; B and T cells and macrophages; Major histocompatibility

complex (MHC); Antigen processing and presentation; Polyclonal and monoclonal

antibody; Regulation of immune response; Immune tolerance; Hypersensitivity;

Autoimmunity; Graft versus host reaction.

Bioinformatics: Major bioinformatic resources and search tools; Sequence and structure

databases; Sequence analysis (biomolecular sequence file formats, scoring matrices,

sequence alignment, phylogeny);Data mining and analytical tools for genomic and

proteomic studies; Molecular dynamics and simulations (basic concepts including force

fields, protein-protein, protein-nucleic acid, protein-ligand interaction)

Section 3: Recombinant DNA Technology

Restriction and modification enzymes; Vectors; plasmid, bacteriophage and other viral

vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, yeast artificial chromosome; mammalian and plant

expression vectors; cDNA and genomic DNA library; Gene isolation, cloning and

expression ; Transposons and gene targeting; DNA labeling; DNA sequencing; Polymerase

chain reactions; DNA fingerprinting; Southern and northern blotting; In-situ hybridization;

RAPD, RFLP; Site-directed mutagenesis; Gene transfer technologies; Gene therapy

Section 4: Plant and Animal Biotechnology

Totipotency; Regeneration of plants; Plant growth regulators and elicitors; Tissue culture

and Cell suspension culture system: methodology, kinetics of growth and, nutrient

optimization; Production of secondary metabolites by plant suspension cultures; Hairy root

culture; transgenic plants; Plant products of industrial importance

Animal cell culture; media composition and growth conditions; Animal cell and tissue

preservation; Anchorage and non-anchorage dependent cell culture; Kinetics of cell

growth; Micro & macro-carrier culture; Hybridoma technology; Stem cell technology;

Animal cloning; Transgenic animals

Section 5: Bioprocess Engineering and Process Biotechnology

Chemical engineering principles applied to biological system, Principle of reactor design,

ideal and non-ideal multiphase bioreactors, mass and heat transfer; Rheology of

fermentation fluids, Aeration and agitation; Media formulation and optimization; Kinetics

of microbial growth, substrate utilization and product formation; Sterilization of air and

media; Batch, fed-batch and continuous processes; Various types of microbial and

enzyme reactors; Instrumentation control and optimization; Unit operations in solid-liquid

separation and liquid-liquid extraction; Process scale-up, economics and feasibility

analysis

Engineering principle of bioprocessing- Upstream production and downstream;

Bioprocess design and development from lab to industrial scale; Microbial, animal and

plant cell culture platforms; Production of biomass and primary/secondary metabolites;

Biofuels, Bioplastics, industrial enzymes, antibiotics; Large scale production and

purification of recombinant proteins; Industrial application of chromatographic and

membrane based bioseparation methods; Immobilization of biocatalysts (enzymes and

cells) for bioconversion processes; Bioremediation-Aerobic and anaerobic processes for

stabilization of solid / liquid wastes