AG Agricultural Engineering

Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrices and determinants, systems of linear equations, Eigen

values and eigen vectors.

Calculus: Limit, continuity and differentiability; partial derivatives; maxima and

minima; sequences and series; tests for convergence; Fourier series, Taylor series.

Vector Calculus: Gradient; divergence and curl; line; surface and volume integrals;

Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

Differential Equations: Linear and non-linear first order Ordinary Differential Equations

(ODE); Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients; Cauchy’s and Euler’s

equations; Laplace transforms; Partial Differential Equations - Laplace, heat and

wave equations.

Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; random

variables; Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; correlation and regression

analysis; tests of significance, analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Numerical Methods: Solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations;

numerical integration - trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule; numerical solutions of ODE.

Section 2: Farm Machinery

Machine Design: Design and selection of machine elements – gears, pulleys, chains

and sprockets and belts; overload safety devices used in farm machinery;

measurement of force, torque, speed, displacement and acceleration on machine


Farm Machinery: Soil tillage; forces acting on a tillage tool; hitch systems and

hitching of tillage implements; functional requirements, principles of working,

construction and operation of manual, animal and power operated equipment for

tillage, sowing, planting, fertilizer application, inter-cultivation, spraying, mowing,

chaff cutting, harvesting, threshing and transport; testing of agricultural machinery

and equipment; calculation of performance parameters - field capacity,

efficiency, application rate and losses; cost analysis of implements and tractors.

Section 3: Farm Power

Sources of Power: Sources of power on the farm - human, animal, mechanical,

electrical, wind, solar and biomass; bio-fuels.

Farm Power: Thermodynamic principles of I.C. engines; I.C. engine cycles; engine

components; fuels and combustion; lubricants and their properties; I.C. engine

systems – fuel, cooling, lubrication, ignition, electrical, intake and exhaust; selection,

operation, maintenance and repair of I.C. engines; power efficiencies and

measurement; calculation of power, torque, fuel consumption, heat load and

power losses.

Tractors and Powertillers: Type, selection, maintenance and repair of tractors and

powertillers; tractor clutches and brakes; power transmission systems – gear trains,

differential, final drives and power take-off; mechanics of tractor chassis; traction

theory; three point hitches- free link and restrained link operations; mechanical

steering and hydraulic control systems used in tractors; tractor tests and


Human engineering and safety in design of tractor and agricultural implements.

Section 4: Soil and Water Conservation Engineering

Fluid Mechanics: Ideal and real fluids, properties of fluids; hydrostatic pressure and

its measurement; hydrostatic forces on plane and curved surface; continuity

equation; Bernoulli’s theorem; laminar and turbulent flow in pipes, Darcy- Weisbach

and Hazen-Williams equations, Moody’s diagram; flow through orifices and

notches; flow in open channels.

Soil Mechanics: Engineering properties of soils; fundamental definitions and

relationships; index properties of soils; permeability and seepage analysis; shear

strength, Mohr’s circle of stress, active and passive earth pressures; stability of


Hydrology: Hydrological cycle and components; meteorological parameters, their

measurement and analysis of precipitation data; runoff estimation; hydrograph

analysis, unit hydrograph theory and application; stream flow measurement; flood

routing, hydrological reservoir and channel routing.

Surveying and Leveling: Measurement of distance and area; instruments for

surveying and leveling; chain surveying, methods of traversing; measurement of

angles and bearings, plane table surveying; types of leveling; theodolite traversing;

contouring; computation of areas and volume.

Soil and Water Erosion: Mechanics of soil erosion, soil erosion types, wind and water

erosion, factors affecting erosion; soil loss estimation; biological and engineering

measures to control erosion; terraces and bunds; vegetative waterways; gully

control structures, drop, drop inlet and chute spillways; earthen dams.

Watershed Management: Watershed characterization; land use capability

classification;rainwater harvesting structures,check dams and farm ponds.

Section 5: Irrigation and Drainage Engineering

Soil-Water-Plant Relationship: Water requirement of crops; consumptive use and

evapotranspiration; measurement of infiltration, soil moisture and irrigation water


Irrigation Water Conveyance and Application Methods: Design of irrigation

channels and underground pipelines; irrigation scheduling; surface, sprinkler and

micro irrigation methods, design and evaluation of irrigation methods; irrigation


Agricultural Drainage: Drainage coefficient; planning, design and layout of surface

and sub-surface drainage systems; leaching requirement and salinity control;

irrigation and drainage water quality and reuse.

Groundwater Hydrology: Groundwater occurrence; Darcy’s Law, steady flow in

confined and unconfined aquifers, evaluation of aquifer properties; groundwater


Wells and Pumps: Types of wells, steady flow through wells; classification of pumps;

pump characteristics; pump selection and installation.

Section 6: Agricultural Processing Engineering

Drying: Psychrometry – properties of air-vapors mixture; concentration and drying of

liquid foods – evaporators, tray, drum and spray dryers; hydrothermal treatment;

drying and milling of cereals, pulses and oilseeds.

Size Reduction and Conveying: Mechanics and energy requirement in size

reduction of granular solids; particle size analysis for comminuted solids; size

separation by screening; fluidization of granular solids-pneumatic, bucket, screw

and belt conveying; cleaning and grading; effectiveness of grain cleaners;

centrifugal separation of solids, liquids and gases.

Processing and By-product Utilization: Processing of seeds, spices, fruits and

vegetables; By-product utilization from processing industries.

Storage Systems: Controlled and modified atmosphere storage; perishable food

storage, godowns, bins and grain silos.

Section 7: Dairy and Food Engineering

Heat and Mass Transfer: Steady state heat transfer in conduction, convection and

radiation; transient heat transfer in simple geometry; working principles of heat

exchangers; diffusive and convective mass transfer; simultaneous heat and mass

transfer in agricultural processing operations; material and energy balances in food

processing systems; water activity, sorption and desorption isotherms.

Preservation of Food: Kinetics of microbial death – pasteurization and sterilization of

milk and otherliquid foods; preservation of food by cooling and freezing;

refrigeration and cold storage basics and applications.

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